Ocular Disease


We provide diagnosis, treatment and management of diseases which affect the human eye and visual system.  Some examples where we have special training include: 

Dry Eye Syndrome

Dry Eye occurs when a person doesn’t have enough quality tears to lubricate and

nourish the eye. Most people don’t know tears are a vital part of the refractive system as

there is the greatest change in the index of refraction from air to tears.

Dry Eye is common and often a chronic problem particularly in adults. People with dry eyes

either do not produce enough tears or the quality of tears are not good.

Inadequate amount of tears – Most common cause of this kind of dry eyes is Sjogrens. Also tear production tends to diminish with age, but also can be caused by environmental

conditions, such as wind and dry climates, also as a side effect of certain medicines.

Poor quality of tears – Typically caused by poor oil layer, the tears are composed of 3

layers, Oily layer on top, watery layer in the middle, and a mucus layer on bottom. If there is

not enough oil, or the quality of oil is not good this causes the tears to evaporate at a

greater rate than normal.

Management of Dry Eye

Your optometrist will determine the type of dry eye whether it is caused by lid disease or systemic disease.  Many inflammatory conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis and lupus may cause dry eyes.  Medications, such as antihistamines, decongestants, cholesterol medications and pain medications may cause dry eyes or exacerbate dry eyes.  Dry eyes may be associated with a decline in estrogen. 

A few of the therapies for dry eyes are;

Artificial Tears – Typically the introductory treatment, for both decreased tear production and

poor tear quality.  If lubricants are recommended, preservative-free drops are encouraged for people who need to use lubricants more than 3 times a day.

Omega 3 – Omega 3 fatty acids has been proven through numerous clinical trials to improve dry eye symptoms and signs.  We carry and recommend a product by EyePromise called EZ Tears.  

EZ Tears

Prescription Medication – Certain medications work to combat inflammation which has

shown to improve tear production and tear quality, such as Xiidra and Restasis.

Punctal Plugs 

If deemed necessary, your optometrist can plug the duct where your tears drain to increase the amount of tears available on the surface of your eyes.


Glaucoma occurs when the pressure inside of the eye increases to the point where it damages the sensitive retinal nerves that line the back of the eye.  There are a multitude of tests that we provide to evaluate the possibility of Glaucoma.  For example, the light color found in the center of the optic nerve head, is a classic observation found in Glaucoma.  Other tests include evaluation of the Nerve Fiber thickness around the optic nerve.  Threshold Field tests are also very important in the ongoing evaluations needed to monitor the treatment program which most frequently includes the selection of the most appropriate eye medication. 


Diabetic Retinopathy

Diabetic Retinopathy is a condition where sugar levels start a series of events which end in damaged blood vessel walls.  As such, the blood vessels begin to leak fluid or bleed, resulting in hemorrhages and swelling followed by the formation of yellow deposits known as exudates.   Vision can be lost where some of these hemorrhages and exudative spots occur.  The best treatment is to have a yearly eye examination to identify if these spots are present.  We carefully examine the back of your eyes and provide you with the results and additionally offer these to other physicians for a multidisciplinary treatment program.   


Cataract is a clouding or opacity of the natural internal lens of the eye.  This opacity may be a small spot or may cover the entire lens.  When light enters the eye it is scattered, causing images to appear hazy and blurred.  There are many different types of cataracts.  The one shown here is a cortical cataract.  Here the opacity forms first is the periphery of the lens and develops inward, like spokes of a wheel.  Ultimately, the best  treatment is to remove the cataract lens and replace it with an acrylic manmade lens.  This is referred to as cataract surgery.  We work closely with specialized eye surgeons.  We provide pre- and post-cataract surgery management. 

Macular Degeneration

Macular Degeneration is a condition in which the central part of the back of the eye loses blood circulation.  As a result, there is a breakdown of retinal pigment epithelium cells in the macular region.  As the disease progresses, central vision diminishes.  This breakdown is due to a lack of nutrients and oxygen needed for the extreme number of light sensitive nerve cells concentrated in the central vision area.  For those who genetically inherit small blood vessels, this can be an important piece of information.  Nicotine is known to shrink blood vessels and contributes to an additional risk factor for Macular Degeneration.  We provide specialized tests to evaluate your personal risks.  We can also provide health and nutritional counseling to reduce this risk.  

In advanced cases, we work closely with specialized Retinal Surgeons who may be needed to treat Macular Degeneration.


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Office Hours

Our Schedule as of May 1, 2020




10:00 am-7:00 pm


10:00 am-7:00 pm


10:00 am-7:00 pm


10:00 am-7:00 pm


8:00 am-3:00 pm